Monoammonium Phosphate Dry Chemical Powder
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP), also known as monoammonium phosphate, or monoammonium phosphate (MAP), NH4H2PO4, is formed when a solution of phosphoric acid is added to ammonia until the solution is distinctly acidic. It crystallizes in tetragonal prisms. Monoammonium phosphate is often used in the blending of dry agricultural fertilizers. It supplies soilwith the elements nitrogen and phosphorus in a form usable by plants. The compound is also a component of the ABC powder in some dry chemical fire extinguishers. This substance is also supplied in an emerald green, amethyst, or aquamarine crystal growing box kit for children.
Solid monoammonium phosphate shows a dissociation pressure of ammonia of 0.05 mm Hg at 125 °C based on the decomposition reaction as follows:
NH4H2PO4(s) NH3(g) + H3PO4(l)
ADP is a widely used crystal in the field of optics due to its birefringence properties. As a result of its tetragonal crystal structure, this material has negative uniaxial optical symmetry with typical refractive indices no =1.522 and ne = 1.478 at optical wavelengths.
ADP crystals are piezoelectric, a property required in some active sonar transducers (the alternative being transducers that usemagnetostriction). In the 1950s ADP crystals largely replaced the Quartz and Rochelle Salt crystals in transducers because they are easier to work than Quartz and, unlike Rochelle Salt, are not deliquescent.
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